1. Some of the features (like TLS) are already present in good implementations of syslog (like rsyslog). 

Other articles

  1. ulogd2: the new userspace logging daemon for netfilter/iptables (part 3)


    If you’ve followed the previous article, you now have a working ulogd2 installation.We will now explore the way data are stored in the database, and the default SQL schema provided with ulogd2.

    SQL schema, basics

    The SQL schema ? Not really, only the default one. Ulogd2 uses stored procedures and views to create an abstraction layer between the C code and the real storage of the data (the tables in the SQL database). The basics are the following:

    Inserting data using the “INSERT” keyword is fast, but requires the application to know the SQL schema. An update of the SQL part will need an update of the C code, which is not very handy. So instead of using:

    INSERT INTO tablename (field1,field2,...) VALUES (1,2,...);

    We will create a stored procedure (in this example, we use PostgreSQL PL/pgSQL syntax):

                   IN value11 integer,
    RETURNS bigint AS $$
           t_id bigint;
                   t_id := INSERT INTO tablename (field1,field2,...) VALUES ($1,$2,...);
                   RETURN t_id;

    Inserting data can now be done, using:


    So, we have succeeded into transforming a fast and single (and simple) query into …

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  2. ulogd2: the new userspace logging daemon for netfilter/iptables (part 2)

    This article explains how to build, install and configure ulogd 2 for use with netfilter/iptables. It explains how to use plugins to store logs in databases (MySQL and PostgreSQL), use plugins to filter data, and gives some iptables rules to log packets.

    Get the sources

    You can use the official repository:

    git clone git://git.netfilter.org/ulogd2.git/



    Use the standard autotools method for configure, build and install:

    ./configure --prefix=/path/to/prefix
    sudo make install


    Edit ulogd.conf

    1. enable plugins

    You will have to choose the input and output plugins according to your setup. NFLOG is present in recent kernels (and iptables installation), and should be preferred if possible.

    • Input plugin: ULOG or NFLOG
    • Output: MySQL or PostgreSQL

    You have to enable the corresponding in the configuration before you can use them:


    See “Stack configuration” later.

    2. buid the stack

    For MySQL, we will use a very simple plugin stack. As MySQL is quite inefficient in storing IP addresses (and …

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  3. ulogd2: the new userspace logging daemon for netfilter/iptables (part 1)

    Ulogd (and also ulogd2) is a powerful and flexible logging system for Netfilter/Iptables, based on a plugin system. It allows, for example, to log packets in a SQL database, and have some interface to analyze it (see Nulog2)



    Ulogd2 combines plugins to create a stack, where each plugin is chained to another. There are three types of plugins:

    • Source
    • Filter
    • Output

    A stack must have only one source, and one output (yet it can have several filters). It is possible to define several stacks in the configuration.

    Each plugin has a type (for ex, PGSQL), and must be instanciated (using a name chosen by the user). Each instance is a particular version of the plugin, defining parameters. This way, we will be able to output data in several formats using different stacks.

    For ex, the following stack :


    defines a stack with the following properties:

    • input plugin is NFLOG, this means we’ll use the -j NFLOG target of iptables as source
    • filters are BASE, IFINDEX, and PRINTPKT (we’ll cover what they do later)
    • output plugin is of type PGSQL, so data will be logged to a …
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